Sameh Ibrahim Mohamed Elhady
ABSTRACT Ports and port related industries have faced major challenges. Globalisation, containerisation, and technological progress are some of the most significant developments that have form a new environment. The extent is such that traditional styles of port management and operations become obscene. By leading to new forms of stakeholders’ partnerships, these developments have contributed to the evolution of new types of strategies in the pursuit of firms’ growth, to an increased participation of private companies in the provision of port services, and to new public port policies which have been dominated by devolution programmes. Irrespective of the fact that some of the changes are exogenous (i.e. are trends observed in the wider global economy), the impact is such that poses challenges and demands a number of adjustments by any port that seeks to remain competitive. The majority of port studies conducted the last decade has recognised that the comprehensive understanding of all these changes are essential for a thorough understanding of the needed adjustments. these effort for this understanding shaped the current port research agenda, they emphasise on the issues that there is a need to reverse the fact that in most cases port studies have focused on port efficiency (productivity) and have considered the relations between port service providers and service users involved in a port as of secondary importance – it is only recently that this issue of port operators and port users has come central stage. Assessing and measuring port performance is a valuable and complex task, consisting of two interrelated components. These are efficiency and effectiveness. Until recently, the majority of port performance evaluation had been directed towards the measurement of the former component only, via the use of internally (i.e. operational) generated information. Efficiency measures relate to the physical quantities of assets provided, scale scope of activates, and the efficiency in converting reassures into some kind of products services. Improved efficiency, though, does not necessarily lead to improved competitiveness, for competitiveness is also a product of effectiveness in delivering desired services to users.