Maii M Hammouda
Investigating the Written Errors of English as a Foreign Language: A Case Study of Bilingual Yoruba / English Nigerian Students
The aim of this research is to identify the types and frequency of grammatical, lexical, content, organization and mechanics errors in the English academic writings of ESL/ EFL learners, with a special focus on bilingual Nigerian students as a case in point. The study also explains the possible sources of the errors detected, whether they occur because of the students’ mother tongue interference the target language. The data used for the study was drawn from a sample population of ESL/ EFL bilingual Nigerians studying at the Arab Academy for Science and Technology. The target population entailing Thirty Two (32) ESL/ EFL Nigerian students were required to write essays in two different cases for piloting the essay task. The researcher implemented a scoring rubrics list constituting the writing assessment criteria which is primarily based on Weir (2005). Test-retest reliability, parallel form reliability, internal consistency and marker reliability are implemented for validating the writings test scores. The data were collected through direct contact with the students for both the test and retest processes. A total of 477 errors were detected in the study. The grammatical errors come in the first place making up to 57% (243 errors) of the total number of errors, whereas the lexis errors represent 10% (49 errors) of the total number of the errors detected. The lexis errors represent 8% (39 errors) the word choice errors and 2% (10 errors) for the verb form errors. The aim of this research is to achieve a high degree performance of English teaching for ESL/ EFL bilinguals from many different backgrounds in their ESL classrooms.